PVA – hydrogel
widely regarded as most accurate live tissue mimic. By tailoring process parameters, we can achieve wide range properties for ofPVA –hydrogel models. PVA hydrogel models can be used with high-frequency electric . Cross-linked materials such as soft polyurethanes, silicones and acrylics, etc. could not be cut with Bovie surgical instrument PVA hydrogels have a high tensile strength, high flexibility, and conductivity from water content.